Bordered by the Pasig River of Philippines is the great fortress built by the Spanish colonizers. Its name 'Intramuros' means 'within the walls'; in the olden days the entirety of Manila was identified as what was enclosed by those thick walls. The Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legaspi soundly defeated the local chief of Manila and announced it to be their colonial centre of the East. Thence, the construction of the Intramuros began and by the 16th century, all military, political, religious, commercial and administrative functions were performed from within the confines of those walls. During World War II, most of the 'Intramuros' was destroyed, but great measures were taken later to preserve what was left of it.